SIAM WEED
(Chromolaena odorata)
Considered to be one of the world's worst weeds. This weed, first found in Australia in 1994, has the potential to cause major damage to coastal ecosystems. It has a spreading habit similar to Lantana, but is more aggressive and invasive. Normally forms dense tangled bushes 2-3 metres high, but can climb up to 20 metres on trees. Similar to Billy Goat weed (Ageratum spp.), but crushed leaves have a sweet, pungent smell.

PARTHENIUM WEED
(Parthenium hysterophorus)
This plant grows up to 1.5 metres tall. It has creamy white flowers that grow in clusters, also deeply lobed pale green leaves which branch alternately on stems and are covered with soft, fine hair. It can cause respiratory problems and severe dermatitis in humans and animals. Livestock carrying capacity is reduced. It is found in neglected areas around yards and buildings, roadsides, also in over stocked areas. It is spread by seed through hay and grain, contaminated vehicles and machinery.

CABOMBA
(Cabomba spp.)
Cabomba is a serious aquatic weed that has great potential to spread in NSW. It is a fully submerged aquatic plant and an aggressive invader, particularly of nutrient rich, shallow waters. It has long rhizomatous stems up to 5 metres, with feathery fan shaped leaves. Flowers are solitary and raised just above the water surface. Cabomba was introduced as an aquarium plant.

HORSETAIL
(Equisetum spp.)
Horsetail is persistent and difficult to control weed that affects many agricultural and horticultural activities. It is toxic to stock, particularly horses and sheep. Horsetail
is a non-woody, non-flowering perennial plant that reproduces by spores and vegetatively. It produces an extensive underground rhizome system. It has also been found in herb nurseries and markets.

LAGAROSIPHON
(Lagarosiphon major)
A submerged water weed of temperate regions. Spread by rhizomes and seed. Dense masses of interwoven, under water stems are produced during Summer. Can deoxygenate water resulting in fish kills and death of other aquatic life. It prefers a water depth of between 20cm and 5 metres. Characterised by leaves spiralling around the stem.

HAWKWEED
(Hieracium aurantiacum)
A perennial herb of variable height between 15-90cm. They have alternate leaves, with yellow, orange or red coloured flowers. The flower head may be a cluster or solitary, up to 3cm in diameter. Hawkweed is native to the Northern Hemisphere, predominately temperate and montane areas. They have now become major weeds of pasturelands in northeastern America, Japan and New Zealand. Hawkweed invades grasslands and displaces native tussock grasses. No known wild infestations occur in NSW , although a number of plants were recently seized being promoted for sale at a herb nursery in Lismore

SENEGAL TEA PLANT
(Gymnocoronis spilanthoides)
This is a potentially serious water weed. Its first sighting in Australia was in Queensland in 1995. It has the potential to become a major weed in shallow and slow moving bodies of water in tropical and sub tropical environments.
It can grow up to 15cm per week and has the potential to block waterways and affect fauna and other flora.

WATER LETTUCE
(Pistia stratiotes)
A free floating, perennial, aquatic plant. The plant spreads by producing under water stems (stolons) which form daughter plants. Spread is very rapid. The leaves are a distinctive pale yellow green, resembling fleshy lettuce leaves. Seeds are only produced when plants are crowded. Dense swards can deoxygenate water resulting in fish kills, and damage to the ecosystem.

TIGER PEAR
(Opuntia aurantiaca)
The plant consists of small segments covered with cruel, barbed spines which easily attach to animals and humans. Each segment may form a new plant. They are difficult to remove. Often difficult to see under good pasture growth.

SALVI N IA
(Salvinia molesta)
An aquatic plant declared noxious throughout New South Wales. A free floating fern with slender stems, floating leaves and a root like structure. Spreads vegetatively by fragmentation and grows rapidly in warm conditions when it can double in size in 2-3 days. Occurs on still and slowly floating water, can smother large areas of water causing problems to other plants and aquatic animals, blocking irrigation equipment and pumping apparatus and reducing the use of waterways for recreation and transport.

ALLIGATOR WEED
(Alternanthera ph iloxeroides)
A floating, attached water weed introduced from South America.    Declared noxious throughout Australia. Found in slow moving and stationary waters, and occasionally on dry land subject to inundation. Easily confused with other species but leaves are opposite and flowers are papery to the touch.

WATER HYACINTH
(Eichhornia crassipes)
A free floating aquatic plant growing in deep or shallow water and in mud. Spreads vegetatively by fragmentation. One plant in one season can spread to occupy about 300 hectares. Easily recognised by its bright shiny pale green fleshy leaves on swollen bladder like stems. Attractive mauve flowers appear in summer and its seeds may lay dormant for many years before germinating.The plant threatens water use generally, infestations may make water unfit for domestic and stock use, choke irrigation systems, block drainage lines, hinder navigation and seriously interfere with wildlife.

JOHNSON GRASS
(Sorghum halepense)
A summer growing perennial sorghum up to 2 metres tall. Has long leaves with prominent white midrib and an open seedhead. Seeds are usually dark brown or black when mature and unlike forage sorghum, has rhizomes (root segments). Johnson grass like all sorghums can be toxic to livestock especially during periods of new growth. Is a safety hazard along roadsides restricting vision and a pollen contaminant of sorghum and other crops.

GIANT RAT'S TAIL GRASS
(Sporobolus pyramidalis)
An unpalatable, free seeding grass that can dramatically reduce carrying capacity and growth rates, particularly in cattle. Closely related to Giant Parramatta Grass and causes similar concerns.It is mainly found on the coast but because of its free seeding nature, the sticky seed is readily spread by humans, vehicles and stock. Do not let this plant devalue your country.

GIANT PARRAMATTA GRASS
(Sporobolus fertilus)
An aggressive and competitive tussocky grass. It can grow up to 2 metres but it is normally 60 to 150 cm tall. Characteristics are coarse leaves and folded leaf sheaths at the base of the plant. A high level of silicon in the leaves has an abrasive effect on the teeth of cattle. Produces enormous number of seeds which can be spread by vehicles, machinery and stock.

PAMPAS GRASS
(Cortaderia spp.)
A long lived perennial tussock (2 metres high) with flowerheads 4 metres high. Plants are either female or hermaphrodite (bisexual). Female plants can produce 100,000 seeds per flowerhead per season if pollinated. Seeds spread by wind. Plant can also be grown from pieces of rhizomes (root segments). Pampas grass is in widespread use as a garden ornamental in residential areas. Produces large quantities of flammable material and dense infestations increases the bush fire hazard.

SPINY BURRGRASS
(Cenchrus incertus & Cenchrus longispinus)
Erect and spreading annual grass to 60cm high. Forms a spike like panicle 3-8cm long consisting of up to 40 spiny burrs. Grows most readily in disturbed sandy soil. It is noxious weed because of its obnoxious burrs which are difficult to extract from skin and clothes. Can cause lameness in dogs and sheep.

MISTFLOWER
(Ageratina riparia)
A sub-tropical to tropical low growing, scrambling perennial plant that grows in sheltered areas on the coastal fringe. Most commonly found on southern slopes or in damp gullies. Seeds germinate in early summer, while new shoots appear on established crowns at the same time. Plants flower profusely from June to September.
The fine white masses of flowers give the appearance of a very attractive "mist" hence the name. There have been unconfirmed cases of stock poisoning.

PATERSON'S CURSE
(Echium spp.)
A winter-spring growing weed common throughout south - east Australia. An erect coarsely hairy annual with attractive purple flowers occasionally white, growing to 30cm. The plant contains potent liver poisons known as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Sustained grazing effects all livestock to varying degrees.

MOTHER-OF-MILLIONS
(Bryophyllum delagoense)
An introduced, smooth, succulent, perennial herb. A garden escapee. It is quite toxic to cattle and probably to humans, the main reason for the declaration. Stems are pink to greyish. Yellow to salmon flowers are formed as drooping clusters at the top of the stalks. Usually found around disused homesteads and along road verges.

NOOGOORA BURR
(Xanthium spp.)
A robust summer growing annual plant usually found on creekbeds, river flats or moist flood prone areas. The plant can invade pastures and cultivation, attains a height of 2 metres with spreading branches to cover an area of 2 metres. The alternate broad lobed leaves are on coarse ribbed branches. The fruit ripens into a spiny burr 2cm long densely beset with hooked spines at end. The species is toxic to livestock and can cause dermatitis and mechanical injury to both humans and livestock.

SMOOTH TREE PEAR
(Opuntia monacantha)
A tree like plant with a distinct trunk. Normally to 1.2 metres high, but up to 6 metres. Pads are glossy green, flowers yellow, fruit red, spines long and straight.

CROFTON WEED
(Ageratina adenophora)
An erect perennial shrub with numerous chocolate-brown coloured woody stems reaching a height of 1-2 metres. Broad trowel shaped toothed leaves producing white flowers in spring. Normally occurs in steep well drained land with little or no frosting and especially on small farms where horses are kept.
Poisonous to horses and access to the weed for as little as 8 weeks will cause sickness and permanent damage to the animals. Coughing is the first sign of Crofton Weed poisoning made more pronounced by exercise.

ST JOHN'S WORT
(Hypericum perforatum)
An erect perennial herb or small shrub with a creeping rootstock. Leaves when viewed against light show characteristic oil glands. Flowers in spring, early summer bearing bright yellow flowers. The dead brown flower stalks are clearly visible at other times during the year. Toxins in the leaves can cause photosensitivity, hyposensitivity (heat and cold stress) and infertility in grazing animals. The plant readily invades unimproved overgrazed pastures.

LANTANA
(RED FLOWERED)
(Lantana camara)
A dense entwined woody shrub. There are a number of strains of Lantana, including the common pink strain. The red flowered strain is toxic to sheep and cattle. It can cause photosensitisation and eventual death.

BLACKBERRY
(Rubus fruticosus (agg.) spp.)
A perennial plant with up to 6metre long hookspined canes capable of forming new plants where the cane tips contact the ground. The crowns of the plant form new canes each year and 2 year old canes bear white and pink flowers at the ends which develop into black succulent berries.
The plant is widely spread by birds and animals and causes problems in forests, creeks, riverbanks and roadsides. Stock carrying capacity is severely reduced because of the rambling nature of the plant.

GROUNDSEL BUSH
(Baccharis halimifolia)
A densely branched perennial, erect shrub growing to 2.5 metres and sometimes as small trees to 7 metres. Spreads readily from wind and water borne seeds. Both female and male plants flower in the autumn. Quickly invades bare areas, over grazed country and disturbed soil. Does not grow well under heavy timber.

GREEN CESTRUM
(Cestrum parqui)
A straggling perennial shrub 2-3 metres tall. May have one or more green brittle stems. Leaves are shiny green to 10cm long, which when crushed have a foul smell. Flowers from late spring to autumn, are yellow trumpet shaped clusters (may have greenish tinge) approximately 2.5cm long at the end of the branches. Have an unpleasant smell during the day but quite sweet in the evening. The fruit, arranged in clusters are shiny black and egg shaped berries.
All parts of the plant are poisonous to livestock particularly cattle and can be toxic to humans.
(a) BROAD LEAF PRIVET
(Ligustrum lucidum)
(b) NARROW LEAF PRIVET
(Ligustrum sinense)
Is a small to large tree with oval shaped, soft leaves. It is an aggressive invader of disturbed bushland, roadsides and riparian zones. During spring and early summer it produces large amounts of pollen which causes allergic reactions in some people

BITOU BUSH
(Chrysanthemoides monilifera)
There are a number of subspecies of this plant. Bitou Bush grows mainly along the sandy coastal strip of NSW and Southern Queensland.
It is a perennial sprawling shrub 1-2 metres high. It tends to smother and kill out native species on sand dunes. It is more an environmental weed rather than of agricultural significance. It is now spreading into ungrazed farming land.

SCOTCH or ENGLISH BROOM
(Cytisus scoparius)
An erect shrub to 3 metres, but more commonly to 2 metres high. It is an invasive weed of disturbed soils, roadsides and neglected areas. It tolerates a wide range of soils but not alkaline soils. Once established it tends to dominate, smothering other species.

MYSORE THORN
(Caesalpinia decapetala)
Mysore Thorn is a robust, thorny sprawling shrub, 2-4 metres high or climber up to 10 metres or higher. It forms dense impenetrable thickets over native vegetation and suppresses pastures. It produces bright yellow flowers during winter and forms large seedpods (6-10cm long) that assist in dispersal.

YELLOW BELLS
(Tecoma stans)
A shrub or small tree to 4 metres in height. It is grown in gardens for its attractive heads of bright yellow trumpet-shaped flowers. It reproduces from seed. It invades disturbed habitats, roadsides and riparian areas.

MICONIA
(Miconia spp.)
Miconia is an aggressive shrub or tree (up to 15 metres tall), native to tropical America. They are grown in gardens for their large attractive foliage (leaves can be 60-70cm long). Key features are the 3 prominent veins on each leaf and a purple colour that may develop on the underside.

BROAD LEAF PEPPER TREE
(Schinus terebinthifolius)
A broad topped, fast growing multi stemmed tree or shrub, 1-5 metres tall. Have separate male and female plants. Female produces dense panicles of ivory flowers and green berries that turn bright red when ripe. Is cultivated as a garden plant and quickly establishes, invades and spreads into neighbouring areas. Also has toxic properties.

CELTIS
(Celtis sinensis)
A deciduous tree to 25 metres tall, native to eastern Asia. Flowers in spring, producing thousands of small orange berries, dispersed by birds. Celtis has been planted as a garden and street tree at a number of locations. Invades bushland areas, particularly riparian zones.