When plants are unpacked, plunge their roots in a pail of water for half an hour. Cut off dead or broken roots and decayed or twiggy shoots.

Make the planting hole 15 to 18 in. wide and, except for standards, no deeper than will be required to bring the budding union level with the surface of the soil. (The budding union is the bulge where the main stem starts.) Make a mound of fine soil in the middle of the hole. Hold the bush in the centre of the hole and spread the roots out without bending or twisting them. Work in plenty of fine soil with the fingers, shaking the bush a little so that the sod falls through the roots and no air gaps are left. Fill in more soil until the hole is half full and press down firmly all around with the foot. Pour half a bucket of water around each bush. After this settles, replace the rest of the soil. The budding union should be level with the surface of the soil. Always make sure you plant firmly, because loose planting allows too much circulation of air, which will dry out the roots.

Newly planted dormant bushes need protection against frost injury in very cold climates. Hills of soil, drawn around the stems to a height of 6 to 8 in., are enough in most climates. This soil is left on all winter with autumn-planted bushes, or until new shoots have sprouted after spring planting. In the
coldest areas, additional winter cover of loose straw will give plants extra protection.
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