Roses bought from the nurseryman have all been grown as budded plants. Budding consists of taking a bud or "eye" of the chosen variety and inserting it in the bark of a vigorous selected form such as R. multiflora. This is known as the stock and provides the roots of the new plants sold by the nurseryman about 15 months later.

Sodding of Standard Roses
Several different kinds of rose stock are used for the trunk and root system of standard roses, including multiflora. For these the actual budding is the same as for bush roses, although the buds are inserted in a different position. Understocks are trained to have a clean trunk with no side branches lower than 3 2 ft. This trunk is tied to a stake to hold it erect. Two or more buds are inserted in different positions around the main stem, directly under the top growths. Usually these will remain dormant until the following spring, when the top of the understock is pruned just above the buds. Hybrid teas, floribundas and even trailing-type roses make good standards.

Cuttings
Propagation by cuttings is generally not as successful as by budding. Commercially the method is quite impracticable since a shoot which provides several buds yields only one cutting, and budding is much quicker. Even if the cutting should root, it may subsequently die or fail to make a sizable bush. Hybrid teas are usually failures in colder regions. Floribundas are likelier to succeed, the crimson-scarlet Frensham
in particular making a reasonably successful plant in most cases. Climbers, ramblers and many of the old-fashioned varieties such as the albas, centifolias, gallicas and Bourbons, root fairly readily and eventually make satisfactory plants.

The period immediately following autumn bloom is the best time to take cuttings. Use the stems that have just flowered, before new side shoots start to grow. Leave the cuttings in the soil for about 15 months, then move them to their permanent quarters.
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