Pruning Hybrid Teas: Prune hybrid teas in early spring when new growth shows signs of starting. The basic idea is to encourage the plant to make a reasonably open, cup-shaped bush.

Remove any diseased or dead wood. Old wood left for several years tends to become infected with diseases and insect pests. The bark of winter-damaged wood generally is brown or discoloured and must be cut back to healthy wood, which has a white or greenish-white pith.
Also remove soft wood. This is easily identified by gently pressing the thorns on the stem. If the wood is immature, the thorns will break off only after much effort, but on ripe growth they will come off readily. Typical soft shoots are the basal growths which develop after the end of summer. These usually produce poor flower stems.

Pruning the rest of the plant is simple. Cut back to about half the length of the previous season's growth. The height will vary, depending upon the severity of the winter, vigour of the variety and garden effect desired. If it is necessary to encourage fresh basal growth in the third and subsequent reduce an occasional old shoot to within 3 or 4 in. of its base.

Pruning Hybrid perpetuals: Prune as recommended for hybrid teas but leave main stems a little longer. Floribundas: Prune these roses early in spring for the best results. First remove all unproductive wood. Entwined shoots are common and should be cut to about I in. of main stems. Leave the remaining shoots
in their naturally various lengths to help ensure continuity of bloom. Centre stems may be left taller to form a well-shaped plant.

Pruning Ramblers: When flowering is over, cut out at their bases as many of the old flowering canes as can be spared (all of them, if enough new shoots are developing from the bottom of the plant to replace those that have bloomed) and train and tie the new shoots into place. If there are not enough strong new shoots to replace all of the old canes, retain some of the youngest and the more vigorous of the old ones, cut back their side branches to within 2 or 3 in. of their bases, and tie them into place, including as many new shoots as possible.

Pruning Climbers: These sometimes bloom more than once during the summer. Some produce only a light second crop of flowers; others are a little more profuse. Pruning is a modified form of that recommended for ramblers. The modification consists of retaining more second and even third-year shoots (their side branches trimmed back as advised for ramblers), because they do not produce strong new shoots from the base nearly as freely as do ramblers. Climber varieties differ a great deal in vigour, freedom and continuity of bloom, but the general rule is to spare the knife. Climbing sports of hybrid teas in particular resent hard pruning. Never allow them to grow upward; train the main shoots fan-wise or horizontally, because most blooms are produced on the laterals. Prune pillar-trained climbers as for regular climbers. Old stems which are too tall should be pruned to the height of the post. New growth may be shortened as desired at any time of year.

Pruning Miniatures: Miniature roses need little pruning. Trim the plants to the desired shape and cut back to half their length any strong shoots which emerge from below soil level. When branches stop flowering, snip them back to a new side shoot.

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