Tsuga canadensis is a evergreen tree found in areas such as Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Georgia, west to Alberta and Minnesota. A member of the Pinaceae family, Tsuga canadensis (L.)Carrière is also known by its common name of Canadian Hemlock. The tree can grow to a height of 20 meters and up to 8 meters wide. The preferred habitat of Woods and swampy areas on cool moist sites[21], also in upland forests, often covering the north side of ridges[82]., with LMH soil and FSN moisture levels. .

Canadian Hemlock is a zone 4 hardy plant that has medicinal uses - the medicinal usage rating of Canadian Hemlock is 3Canadian hemlock was commonly employed medicinally by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints[257]. It is still sometimes used in modern herbalism where it is valued for its astringent and antiseptic properties. The bark is rich in tannin and is astringent and antiseptic[222, 254]. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea, colitis, diverticulit is and cystitis[254]. Externally, it is used as a poultice to cleanse and tighten bleeding wounds, as a douche to treat excessive vaginal discharge, thrush and a prolapsed uterus, and as a mouthwash and gargle for gingivit is and sore throats[222, 254]. The poultice has also been applied to the armpits to treat itchiness there[257]. The inner bark is diaphoretic and styptic[21, 213, 257]. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds and abdominal pains[21, 213,
257]. A decoction of the inner bark has been applied externally in the treatment of eczema and other skin conditions[257]. The pulverized inner bark has been applied to cuts and wounds to stop the bleeding[257]. A tea made from the leafy twig tips is used in the treatment of dysentery, kidney ailments, colds and rheumatism[21, 222, 257]. Externally, it is used in steam baths for treating colds, rheumatism and to induce sweating[222]. A decoction of the branches has been boiled down to a syrup or thick paste and used as a poultice on arthritic joints[257]. A poultice of the crushed branch tips has been used to treat infections on an infants navel[257]. Hemlock pitch has been used externally as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism[213].

Tsuga canadensis is 1 plant, whose flowers bloom typically in 5, and which is pollinated by Wind.

The plant has an edibility rating of 2Inner bark - raw or cooked[213]. Usually harvested in the spring[2], it can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[2, 46, 161]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails[183]. The leaves and twigs yield 'spruce oil', used commercially to flavour chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream etc[183]. A herbal tea is made from the young shoot tips[2, 62, 95, 159, 183, 257]. These tips are also an ingredient of 'spruce beer'[183].

Cultivation tips: An easily grown plant, it thrives best when growing in a deep well-drained soil in the western parts of Britain where it appreciates the higher rainfall[11]. However, it succeeds in most soils and positions, being especially good on acidic sandy soils[81] but also tolerating some lime[11] so long as there is plenty of humus in the soil[208]. Plants are very shade tolerant when young, but need more sunlight as they grow older[81, 200]. Plants are thin and poor when grown in dry or exposed places[200]. A slow-growing but long-lived species in the wild, with specimens nearly 1000 years old recorded[229]. It is occasionally planted as a timber tree in Germany[50]. It is very slow growing in cultivation for the first few years, it then grows more rapidly with annual shoots up to 60 centimeters long. This rate of growth soon slows as the tree loses apical dominance and it becomes slow growing again[185]. Seed production commences around the age of 20 - 40 years, with good crops produced every 3 - 4 years[229]. The crushed foliage has a sweet lemony scent[185]. Another report says that it emits the unpleasant smell of hemlock[245]. Many named forms have been selected for their ornamental value[185]. Almost all of them are dwarf forms[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].

. The plant should best be propagated by Seed - it germinates better if given a short cold stratification[80, 113] and so is best sown in a cold frame in autumn to late winter. It can also be sown in early spring, though it might not germinate until after the next winter. If there is sufficient seed, an outdoor sowing can be made in spring[78]. Pot-grown seedlings are best potted up into individual pots once they are large enough to handle - grow them on in a cold frame and plant them out in early summer of the following year. The trees transplant well when they are up to 80 centimeters tall, but they are best put in their final positions when they are about 30 - 45 centimeters or less tall, this is usually when they are about 5 - 8 years old[200]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. Th is also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200].

Inner bark - raw or cooked[213]. Usually harvested in the spring[2], it can be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[2, 46, 161]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails[183]. The leaves and twigs yield 'spruce oil', used commercially to flavour chewing gum, soft drinks, ice cream etc[183]. A herbal tea is made from the young shoot tips[2, 62, 95, 159, 183, 257]. These tips are also an ingredient of 'spruce beer'[183].